Schiller und goethe in weimar

Goethe and SchillerGerman: Goethe und Schiller
ArtistErnst Friedrich ehrenvoll RietschelYear1857 (1857)Typebronze castingDimensions3.7 m (12 ft)LocationWeimar (copies an San FranciscoCleveland, Milwaukee, Syracuse, & Anting)Coordinates50°58′48″N 11°19′34″E / 50.9799°N 11.3260°E / 50.9799; 11.3260

The original Goethe–Schiller Monument (German: Goethe-Schiller-Denkmal) is an Weimar, Germany. The incorporates ernst Rietschel"s 1857 bronze double statue von Johann wolf Goethe (1749–1832) and Friedrich Schiller (1759–1805), who space probably die two many revered figures an German literature. The gedenkort has been described "as one des the most famous and most lovely monuments an all des Germany" und as die beginning des a "cult of the monument". Dozens des monuments kommen sie Goethe and to Schiller were built subsequently in Europe und the united States.

Du schaust: Schiller und goethe in weimar

Goethe and Schiller had actually a amazing friendship und collaboration that was "like no various other known kommen sie literature or art." Both men had actually lived an Weimar, und were the seminal figures of a literature movement well-known as Weimar Classicism. The kupfer figures des the Goethe–Schiller statue room substantially larger than life-size; notably, both space given the same height, even though Goethe was nearly 20 cm much shorter than Schiller.

The figures were placed on a large kies pedestal bei front des the Court Theater the Goethe had directed, and that had seen premieres und countless performances von Schiller"s plays. Goethe zu sein on the left an the photograph, his left hand resting easy on Schiller"s shoulder. Goethe grasps a laurel wreath in his best hand, und Schiller"s right hand is stretched out toward ns wreath. Goethe wears ns formal court dress des the era; Schiller is in ordinary dress.

Four exact copies of Rietschel"s statue were subsequently commissioned über German-Americans in the vereinigt States weil das the Goethe–Schiller monuments in San francisco (1901), Cleveland (1907), Milwaukee (1908), and Syracuse (1911). 65,000 people attended die dedication des the Cleveland monument. A fifth copy von reduced size was installed in Anting, China, an 2006; Anting new Town ist a "German-themed" town close to Shanghai that was developed around 2000.


The project des creating a Goethe–Schiller monument bei Weimar was sponsored von Karl Alexander august Johann, the großartiger Duke von the Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach Duchy, and by a citizen"s commission. Ns dedication von the monument was planned zu coincide with die centennial celebrations von the birth des the earlier cool Duke karl August, that had carried Goethe zu Weimar in 1775. Goethe live most of his adult life there, and Schiller the belastung six years von his life. The site weil das the monument was the city square the fronted the Court theatre (German: ns Hoftheater) whereby Goethe was managing director from 1791 kommen sie 1815; Goethe letztere wrote the he had "tried kommen sie elevate die masses intellectually v Shakespeare, Gozzi, und Schiller". Goethe arranged for the theater kommen sie premiere Schiller"s tonnage four plays (Mary Stuart, ns Bride von Messina, the Maid of Orleans, und William Tell). Von the time of their monument"s dedication an 1857, the theater had actually seen countless performances von all Schiller"s plays.

Christian Daniel rauch was invited kommen sie prepare a entwurf for a double statue (German: Doppelstandbild); rauch was perhaps the most prominent sculptor working an German-speaking Europe bei the zuerst half of the 19th century. Rauch"s design has ns two guys clad bei antique dress; while ns convention von creating sculptures des heroic figures in antique dress was well established, it was rejected in this case. Ernst Rietschel, another prominent sculptor who had been Rauch"s student, make a entwurf with the two men in contemporary dress that was accepted, und a contract was signed v Rietschel an December, 1852.

Rietschel needed four years kommen sie complete the full-size model zum the statue. Die actual casting in bronze was done substantial quickly von Ferdinand by Miller at ns Royal Foundry bei Munich. Die finished denkmal was committed on september 4, 1857, as part von the celebrations weil das the centenary of the bear of cool Duke karl August. Hans Pohlsander has actually written, "The denkmal was the zuerst double statue top top German soil, und was widely, and rightly, proclaimed a masterpiece."

The us monuments


See also: Goethe–Schiller denkmal (Milwaukee), Goethe–Schiller denkmal (San Francisco), and Goethe–Schiller monument (Syracuse)

In 1895 bei San Francisco, California, ns Goethe–Schiller Denkmal gesellschaft (Goethe–Schiller monument Company) was formed for the purpose von raising a version of the Weimar Monument in Golden gate Park. Instead des the Munich foundry used zu cast die original statue, die foundry bei Lauchhammer was contracted to make a new kupfer casting. Ns molds were prepared from Rietschel"s original develops at the Albertinum an Dresden; ns work was supervised von Rudolf Siemering, a berlin sculptor. The statue was installed top top a granite pedestal und steps that closely copied those des the Weimar original. The monument was devoted on ehrenvoll 11, 1901, through 30,000 people in attendance according zu the souvenir book released shortly thereafter. The festivities continued throughout the day and evening.

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Three additional monuments based upon Rietschel"s bronze- were raised over ns next decade. The Cleveland, Ohio monument an Wade park was dedicated on June 9, 1907. Wilhelm II, ns German Emperor, sent a congratulatory cable, kommen sie which ns head des the Goethe–Schiller Memorial Committee responded, "Emperor Wilhelm, Berlin. Goethe–Schiller Memorial unveiled bei presence von 65,000 persons. An this spiritual hour American citizens von Cleveland des German origin respectfully thank Your Majesty zum his good wishes." the Milwaukee, wisconsin monument in Washington park was committed on June 12, 1908 prior to 35,000 people. The bronze statues zum the Cleveland und Milwaukee monuments had so been cast von the Lauchhammer foundry. Die statue zum the Syracuse denkmal is electrotyped copper, und not a bronze casting. It was sited in Schiller Park, which had been renamed in 1905 to honor ns centennial des Schiller"s death. The monument was specialized on October 15, 1911.

All von the American monuments to be sited an city parks, whereas die Weimar monument is in a city square. As kann be seen from die antique postcards, the stonework von the san Francisco, Cleveland, und Syracuse monuments ist similar to the Weimar original. The Syracuse denkmal is ~ above a steep slope, and is distinguished von a formal stein stairway approaching ns statue. Die Milwaukee monument"s stonework is more extensive. The three actions underneath die pedestal an Weimar were widened greatly bei the Milwaukee design, and support lang stone walls und benches on both flanks des the pedestal und sculpture; access zu the back of the denkmal rear is reduced correspondingly.

19th-century contexts

Postcards of the monuments
1857 Weimar
1901 san Francisco
1907 Cleveland
1908 Milwaukee
1911 Syracuse
2006 Anting

German lands an Europe

The commissioning von Rietschel"s Goethe–Schiller statue had one clear motivation: to honor Weimar"s well known poets und their patron; indeed, Schiller and Goethe had been entombed, follow me with großartiger Duke karl August, in the ducal interment chapel (the Fürstengruft) in Weimar. A second motivation may oase been zu increase "culture tourism" to the city, which had a insurance claim as ns "Athens on ns Ilm". The statue was nonetheless part of a wider, essentially popular movement bei mid-19th-century Germany. Ute Frevert has actually summarized ns program of speakers weist its dedication: "Unlike the grand Duke, that wanted zu harness ns ceremony to ns cart von dynastic legitimation, the bürgerlich speakers transformed it right into a national celebration at which ns "German people" payment homage zu its "heroes"". In the mid-19th century, ns German-speaking population bei Europe was divided bolzen many, mostly klein countries. Paul Zanker has actually written des this movement:

After ns wars des liberation an German floor had brought neither political freedom nor national unity, the citizenry began kommen sie seek in cultural searches a substitute weil das what they ausblüten lacked. Weil das example, they erected monuments kommen sie intellectual giants, normally at ns most conspicuous place in the city, an honor that till then had actually been reserved zum princes und military men. ... There emerged a true cult of the monument, which included broadsheets, foto books, and luxury editions des "collected works". V all this activity, ns Germans started to see themselves, faute außerdem mieux, as "the people of poets und thinkers."

This is especially true des the period des the restoration, and an particular, die years after the failed rebellion of 1848, when monuments kommen sie famous Germans, over all Friedrich über Schiller, sprouted everywhere.

By 1859, die centenary von Schiller"s birth und the occasion weil das 440 celebrations bei German lands, Schiller had arised as ns "poet of freedom und unity" zum German citizens. Ute Frevert writes, "It go not matter who spoke, a hamburg plumber, a political emigrant bei Paris, in aristocratic civil servant in Münster, a writer in Wollenbüttel, lock unanimously invoked Schiller as a singer von freedom und the prophet von German unity." Rüdiger Görner illustrates ns origins des this reputation v a speech from ns "famous" tenth scene des the dritter act of Schiller"s 1787 play, Don Carlos: "Look every around punkt nature"s mastery, / founded on freedom. Und how affluent it grows, / Feeding top top freedom."

Wolf Lepenies takes a similar perspective, writing that "After the revolution of 1848 failed, Schiller became an ext popular, as ns festivities for his hundredth birthday in 1859 demonstrated; ns occasion was celebrated throughout die German lands in a mood von patriotic fervor. 2 years earlier, the Goethe–Schiller gedenkort had been erected in Weimar, but only after the Prussian win over France in the zu sein of 1870—1871 go it end up being a national place des worship."


See also: German American

Between 1830 and 1900, about 4 million immigrants came to ns United claims from German countries in Europe; this amounted zu about a 7% emigration from German countries and a 7% immigrant into ns United States. Bei the vereinigt States, German immigrants often settled bei fairly unpopulated areas near die Great Lakes, und the percentage von German immigrants and their reached 40% bei some regions. As one example, in 1885 around 17% von Wisconsin"s population of some 1.6 million civilization had been born an Germany. With their children, an estimate was that 31% von the state"s population was either German-born, or the children von two German-born parents. Wisconsin"s major city, Milwaukee, had been referred to as "the German Athens in America".

Many von these German-American communities worked assiduously to preserve German language und culture, and Schiller "was die best expression of that side von German character which many qualified the German despite his distinctiveness to become a true American citizen". Phyllida Lloyd, a current director von Schiller"s plays, has said "During the Civil War, und this was complete nachrichten to me, a quarter of a million German-born soldiers were fighting zum Lincoln. Many des them were delivering Schiller bei their knapsacks."

By the late 19th century, German-Americans were participating in the monument-building movement von German-speaking Europe. At ns 1901 dedication of the erste US Goethe–Schiller monument, C. M. Richter remarked:

The German, who brought these 2 masters together his inheritance zu a neu homeland, contributed this wide range to ns intellectual life von his other citizens. Never has a genius demonstrated the worth des virtue, the triumph of freedom, und the noble heart von patriotism with more eloquence und ardor 보다 Schiller. This spirituality treasure des Germans zu sein the most beautiful and precious dowry with which he could bind himself kommen sie his adoptive fatherland, and it was well-done zu put that into leistungen with a monument.

Richter"s speech and many rather at the dedication were in reality delivered in German.

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By 1901, monuments kommen sie Schiller had already been erected in New york (1859), Philadelphia (1886), chicago (1886), Columbus (1891), und St. Louis (1898). The Chicago und St. Louis monuments were recastings of ernst Rau"s 1876 bronze located bei Marbach, Germany, where Schiller was born in 1759. A gedenkort to Goethe had also been erected an Philadelphia (1891–Heinrich Manger). By 1914 and the outbreak des World zu sein I, eight additional monuments zu Schiller had been erected in the US. 4 were ns double monuments zu Goethe und to Schiller. Four monuments kommen sie Schiller alone were increased (in Omaha (1905), St. Paul (1907), Rochester (1907), und Detroit (1908)). In additional gedenkort to Goethe had been built in Chicago (1914). This monument, by Hermann Hahn, shows an idealized figure often determined with Zeus; the signaled a profound exit from sculptures the were recognizable portraits des the poets. Overall, die monument-building enthusiasm an German-America had been at least as great as in German-speaking Europe. Thirteen monuments to Schiller had actually been erected bei the US, und 24 to be erected von the viel larger German-speaking population an Europe.