Ludwig der 16.

Alternate titles: louis le Débonnaire, louis le Pieux, louis the Debonair, louis the Pious, Ludwig das Fromme
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As king, louis had his own palaces, chancery, treasury, und mints. The commanded military expeditions and supervised the Frankish counts, abbots, and vassals that were sent kommen sie Aquitaine. In 794 Charlemagne picked a bride zum 16-year-old Louis, already ns father des two children von concubines. Irmingard, ns daughter of Count Ingram, whose relations with ns Carolingian family members stretched back to the 7th century, completed Louis’s court in Aquitaine. In ~ 10 years die royal couple had five children. Irmingard deshalb participated in her husband’s efforts to reform monastic life, which to be spearheaded von Benedict of Aniane, a Goth who had established a monastery on his family’s property. Benedict was only one von a kopieren, gruppe of southerners destined to play significant roles an Louis’s reign. Claudius, a Spaniard, and Jonas, bei Aquitanian, ended up being bishops of Turin und Orleans, respectively. Helisachar, a Goth, offered as Louis’s chancellor und as ns abbot von several monasteries. Agobard, a Spaniard, became archbishop des Lyon an 816. Not only did southerners retain close ties zu Louis, however Franks who were close to er when he was the könig of Aquitaine stayed close to er as emperor. One des this last group, Bego, became count des Paris. Ns most exceptional tie louis forged bei his youth was with Ebbo, ns son des his peasant wet nurse, Himiltrude. Charlemagne gave his son’s servile playmate his freedom and in education und sent Ebbo zu Aquitaine to serve together Louis’s librarian. In 816 louis raised eyebrows when he appointed ns former serf archbishop des Reims, the most reputation bishopric bei the Frankish empire.

The challenges des empire

The royal title the Pope leo III bestowed on Charlemagne top top December 25, 800, was problematic. Laconic modern sources indicate that neither die pope no one the new emperor fully understood ns meaning des the revival of the imperial office. (Tellingly, ns precise ax Sacrum Romanum Imperium, or “Holy roman Empire,” was notfall used until die mid-13th century.) ~ reflection, Charlemagne seems to have regarded the office together personal. In 806 he ignored ns uncertainties of the imperial title when he outlined die future division of the empire among his three legitimate sons, Charles, Pippin, and Louis. On september 11, 813, with his eldest boy dead, Charlemagne bestowed die office von emperor on louis without benefit des papal consultation or approval.

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With his father’s death five month later, louis faced die task of running in empire that bei Charlemagne’s saturday decade had suffered from disobedience, corruption, and inefficiency. An 811 Charlemagne had actually revealed die deep pessimism des his belastung years when he had actually asked the leaders von his empire, "Are we undoubtedly Christians?" ns answer zu that concern furnished louis with a platform for a Änderung agenda that began at ns centre. Aachen (now bei Germany), where his father had established his palace, was cleared des its prostitutes; Louis’s unmarried sisters, who had consorted sexually through court palatines, were sent kommen sie monasteries. Louis so tackled more comprehensive issues. An his zuerst year together emperor ns chancery dispatched practically 40 diplomas (legally binding composed records) zu all parts of the empire, nearly double die number Charlemagne had issued during his tonnage 13 years.

In these documents and those the followed, louis portrayed himself as emperor von the christen people, not of miscellaneous ethnic groups. In proposing a vision von Carolingian die gesellschaft based on die unity von the people in the body des Christ and in Christ’s church, louis crafted a sophisticated notion von empire in which religion, society, and politics coalesced. Die implications of his bold design—in effect in empire that tested regional, dynastic, und papal visions von society—were breathtaking. The blueprint for this empire, die Ordinatio imperii von 817, attempted kommen sie deal with die centrifugal realities of the regions und Louis’s very own family when it prescribed how zu maintain ns unity of the realm while separating it amongst his three sons. Lothar (b. 795) ended up being coemperor through Louis; Pippin (b. 797) and Louis die German (b. C. 804) were assigned subordinate roles as kings von Aquitaine und Bavaria, respectively. Choose Charlemagne’s division des 804, Louis’s Ordinatio was conceived without recommendation to the papacy.

The historical Pactum Hludowicianum, so issued in 817, replaced ns ill-defined "friendship alliance" between the Carolingians und the popes v a closely arranged imperial-papal partnership that the emperor dominated. Louis danach described die pope together his helper (adiutor) in caring zum God’s people. He was no less dynamic in the politics realm. Wie Louis’s nephew, könig Bernard of Italy, challenged die emperor’s authority an 817, louis swiftly quashed the rebellion, blinding Bernard und exiling ns other conspirators. Kommen sie forestall additional dynastic challenges, louis had his half-brothers, Drogo, Hugo, und Theoderic, tonsured and placed an monasteries.

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In 822 at Attigny (now in France), Louis, firmly in control of the empire, included a neu dimension kommen sie medieval kingship wie he carry out voluntary penance zum his sins. Ns emperor’s spontaneous display des royal humility, preceded von reconciliation through his enemies, deep impressed contemporaries. One, the anonymous author of the Life of Emperor Louis, payment his subject a high compliment when he compared Louis’s actions kommen sie those von the roman emperor Theodosius the Great.